By J. David Baxter


4. The vacuum holds potential to support electromagnetic vibrations. Zero-point energy density differs between the vacuum, and the presence of matter. 26. Zero-point energy interacts with the structure of particles it can't penetrate. I believe the power of zero-point energy at the planck length is so strong, that it would have to be able to penetrate quarks.

7. Inertia is controlled by the charge of an electron, & quarks, and their interaction with zero-point energy. 8. Electromagnetism is a linear harmonic oscillator. It has its basis in frequency, direction, and polarization. The inertial velocity of an oscillator, is induced by its interaction with zero-point energy. The inertial force is perpendicular to the line of the oscillations. It is also proportional to the degree of acceleration, and proper volume of a given mass.

11.The mass of an object comes from the interaction of zero-point energy with quarks. The proton is 47 times more massive than the sum of its quarks, The neutron is 38 times more massive than the sum of its quarks. 13. Add energy to zero-point energy, and it is possible to organize and orient it for extraction. Zero-point energy is related to harmonic oscillations in a radiation mode.

14. The hydrogen atom absorbs and transmits zero-point energy. 25. ,26. Electrostatic potential energy contributes to a system's mass. 32., 34. The magnetic standing wave is not a conserved quantity. Inertia comes from the magnetic component of zero-point energy. 33. Tensors are physical qualities. 2. Parity and angler momentum is pseudo tensors. 38. Electrodynamics, inertia, and the mass of the electron, are interrelated with the effects of zero-point energy.

41. Inertia can be determined between the charge of a particle and zero-point energy. 36. The source of permittivity and permeability might be made up of atomic scale dipoles.

The permeability of the vacuum is exactly 12.566370614 X 10 to the minus 7 Henries per meter. The permittivity of the vacuum is exactly 8.854187817 X 10 to minus 12 Farads per meter. This all relates to the electromagnetism of the speed of light in a vacuum. The resonant frequency of this vacuum energy is determined by the equation Fr = 1
2 pi
/ L C
L stands for inductance in henries. C stands for the capacitance in farads. Applying this equation to the permeability and permittivity of the vacuum, the resonant frequency is 48.826966 MHZ per meter. Applying 1/f to the result gives a wavelength of .204804860 nM. The bohr radius is 5.29177249 X 10 to the minus 11 meters. This is six times larger than the vacuum resonant wavelength.

This vacuum resonance could be a key in organizing zero-point energy for extraction, as well as a key to exceeding light speed. At this wavelength, if the casimir energy level per square centimeter is pulsed once per second, it would produce 635 MW of power, plus resonance effects. However, at wavelengths, such as the compton wavelengths for the proton and electron, there should be present much higher levels of capacitance and inductance at work. Starting with the vacuum resonance per meter, the other resonances could be accessed. Possibly through the use of harmonics, and wavelengths.


18. Superluminal tunneling of electromagnetism through a mass, can occur at 10 GHZ. A cutoff frequency of microwaves higher than the microwave wavelengths, causes microwaves to go superluminal. 19. With thicker mass barriers, the superluminal speed increases. Linear frequency broadening, makes tunneling time predictable. 22. With two paired particles, if the oscillation of either particle is exceeded, light speed will be exceeded.

31. Reduced zero-point energy density between mirrors, increases light speed. 13. In casimir effect, thicker plates capture higher frequencies, with the same energy effect as closer thinner plates. 42. There is no sharp division between particles and waves within atoms, so frequency manipulation can be used to change gravity. The wave properties in matter may assist the degree of superluminal tunneling. The thicker the mass, the more the wavelengths within matter assisting tunneling time. In the stimulated emission of zero-point energy, the waves know the proper casimir cavity size for the expected reaction.


2. Rotation can bring electromagnetic order out of disorder. Rotation assists nuclear spin alignment. Einstein's theory does not take into consideration rotation, when the speed of light is considered. 6. Gravity can be decreased by annular rotation, or conduction. Clockwise rotation absorbs gravity, when the circumference is long, and the rotation is horizontal to the plane of the gravitational source. Use of 250,000 windings, in this rotation, with an electric charge on it, can affect gravity. Gravity itself, is an effect of zero-point energy polarization at a distance. 29. Precession on rotation can increase anti-gravitational effects. Place an electric charge on a large spiraling wheel, and it can change inertia. Faster rotational speeds increase anti-gravitational effects.


8. Rectifiers bring order out of disorder. Conducting capacitor plates bring out the best casimir force results. 9., 10. Should be able to extract zero-point energy using variable capacitance, connected through two diode rectifiers. Capacitance varies in closing casimir plates. 27. Zero-point energy acts like a circuit, with inductance, capacitance, impedance, and resonant frequency. 7. A capacitor, with voltage and magnetic flux, creates spin waves, bringing order out of disorder.

Use of a resonant cavity can enhance zero-point energy. The cavity must be leaky. It is possible to create a transducer, based on an oscillating boundary of zero-point energy. Forces exerted in space-time, results in perfect resonance at all frequencies. The transducer oscillation boundary has variable optical qualities. 19. Use a laser pulse in femosecond pulses, with rapid capacitor switching to turn on radiation source, with casimir force increasing at boundaries.


4. Aluminum is a good conductor for zero-point energy, but it is transparent at 10 nm. A coating that isn't transparent at 0.1 nm, deserves discovery and consideration. Mica is a possibility. 38. Zero-point energy vibrational energies are highest, when in contact with the molecule C2H4, at 31 K Cal per mol. There is a casimir force between molecules of different dielectric constants. It should be possible to tap this energy.


17. Electromagnetic momentum can be used as a reaction force. I would suggest that one key for both thrust, and overcoming inertia, would be to reflect zero-point energy, such that inertial drag is turned into a pushing force. 23. Motional force vanishes for a single mirror uniformly accelerating in a vacuum. 34. Can cause mirror magnetic standing waves to move in the opposite direction. Electrostatic force can provide balanced gravity and provide thrust. 43. Voltage applied to a suspended capacitor, results in linear thrust. 44. Oscillation phase locking is antigravitational. Zero-point energy vibration potential can be used as reaction mass. 7.Electromagnetic fields have mass and can store momentum, which can be used to generate inertial reaction forces. Separate and limited range radio, and electric magnetic waves used in process.


1. Field Propulsion For Future Flight, H.D. Froning, Jr., AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, California, June 24-26, 1991, McDonnell Douglas MDCH5615A, May 1991.

2. From Antigravity To Zero-Point Energy: A technical review of advanced propulsion concepts, George Hathaway, AIDAA/AIAA/DGLR/JSASS 22nd International Electric Propulsion Conference, Oct. 14-17, 1991, Viareggio, Italy.

3.Inertia And Possibly Impulsion-By Conditioning Electromagnetic Fields, H.D. Froning Jr., T.W. Barret, 33rd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, July 6-9, 1997, Seattle, Washington.

4.Robert Forward, Mass Modification Experiment Definition Study (An Air Force Report), Journal Of Scientific Exploration, Vol.10, number 3, Autumn 1996.

5.Electric Propulsion/Antigravity, D.L. Cravens, Electric Spacecraft Journal, Issue 13, Published Oct. 12, 1994, page 25.

6.Combined Antigravity Experiments, Martin Hawerda, Electric Spacecraft Journal, issue 25, Published May 6, 1998, page 24.

7. Electromagnetic Propulsion Via A Vacuum-Interactional Push, Blair M. Cleveland, Electric Spacecraft Journal, issue 25, Published May 6, 1998, page 8.

8. The Zero-Point Field And The NASA Challenge To Create The Space Drive, Bernhard Haisch, Alfonso Rueda, 1997 NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop, Cleveland, Ohio.

9. Casimir Effects: Evidence And Implications, Peter W. Milonni, 1997 NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop, Cleveland, Ohio.

10. QED Casimir Force Electrical Power Supply, George F. Erickson, 1997 NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop, Cleveland, Ohio.

11. Advances In The Proposed Electromagnetic Zero-Point Field Theory Of Inertia, B. Haisch, A. Rueda, H.E. Puthoff, 34th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, July 13-15, 1998, Cleveland, Ohio.

12. Determination Of The Existence Of The Vacuum Structure, N.W. Kantor, R.D. Eagleton, M.N. Kaplan, 1997 NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop, Cleveland, Ohio.

13. Casimir Effect For Dielectric Plates, Dorota Kupisze, and Jan Mostowski, Physical Review A, Vol. 41, Num 9, May 1, 1990, pages 4636-4644.

14. Radiation Pressure From The Vacuum: Physical Interpretation Of The Casimir Force, P.W. Milonni, R.J. Cook, M.E. Goggin, Physical Review A, Vol. 38, Aug. 1 1988.

15. SETI, The Velocity-Of-Light, And the Alcubierre Warp Drive: An Integrating Overview, H.E. Puthoff, Physics Essays, Vol. 9, Num 1, March 1996.

16. On Causality Proofs Of Superluminal Barrier Traversal Of Frequency Band Limited Packets, W. Heitmann, G. Nimtz, Physics Letters A 196 (1994), pages 154-158.

17. Barrier Interaction Time In Tunneling, R. Landauer, T.H. Martin, Review Of Modern Physics, Vol. 66, No. 1, Jan. 1994.

18. Anomalous Pulse Delay In Microwave Propagation: A plausible connection to the tunneling time, A. Ranfagni, P. Fabini, and D. Mugnai, Physical Review E, Vol. 48, Num. 2, August 1993.

19. Tunneling Of Optical Pulses Through Photonic Band Gaps, C.H. Spielmann, R. Seipocs, A. Stingl and F. Krause, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 73, Num 17, Oct. 24, 1994.

20. Extracting Electrical Energy From The Vacuum By Cohesion Of Charged Foliated Conductors, Robert L. Forward, Physical Review B., Vol. 30, Num. 4, 15 Aug. 1984, pages 1700-1702.

21. Demonstration Of The Casimir Force In The .6 to 6 micrometer range, S.K. Lamoreaux, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 78, Num. 1, Jan. 6, 1997, pages 5-8.

22. Long-Range (casimir) Interactions, Larry Spruch, Science, Vol. 292, June 7, 1996, pages 1452-1455.

23. Inertia Of Casimir Energy, Marc-Thierry Jaekel, and Serge Reynaud, Journal Of Physics I, France, 3 (1193) 1093-1104, May 1993.

24. Casimir Effect In Dielectrics: Bulk Energy Contribution, C.E. Carlson, C. Molina-Paris, J. Perez-Mercader, and Matt Visser, Physical Review D, Vol. 56, Num 2, July 15, 1997, pages 1262-1280.

25. Electrostatic Levitation Of A Dipole, David J. Griffiths, American Journal Of Physics, Vol. 54, No. 8, Aug. 1986.

26. Electrostatic Potential Energy Leading To A Gravitational Mass Change For A System Of Two Point Charges, Timothy H. Boyer, American Journal Of Physics 47 (2), Feb. 1979.

27. Zero-Point Energy: A New Prime Mover? Engineering Requirements For Energy Production From Vacuum Fluctuations, by George Hathaway.

28. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics, Serge Haroche, and Daniel Kleppner, Physics Today, Jan. 1989, page 24.

29. The Theory Of Antigravity, H. Aspden, Physical Essays, Vol. 4, Num. 1, 1991.

30. Engine Cycle Of An Optically Controlled Vacuum Energy Transducer, F. Pinto, Physical Review B, Vol. 60, 1 Dec. 1999.

31. QED Between Parallel Mirrors: Light Signals Faster Than c, or Amplified By The Vacuum, G. Barton, And K. Scharnhorst, Journal Of Physics A, 1993, 2037-2046.

32. Essays On The Formal Aspects Of Electromagnetic Theory, Lakhtakia, published by World Scientific Publishing Company, Matter-Energy, waves-particles are interchangeable. Electromagnetic Phenomena Not Explained By Maxwell's Equations, Terence W. Barrett, 1453 Beulah Road, Vienna, Va. 22182.

33. Essays On The Formal Aspects Of Electromagnetic Theory, Lakhtakia, Published by World Scientific Publishing Company, Electromagnetic Transients Not Explained By Maxwell's' Equations, Henning F. Harmuth, Department of Electrical Engineering, The Catholic University Of America, Washington D.C. 20064 USA.

34. Essays On The Formal Aspects Of Electromagnetic Theory, Lakhtakia, Published by World Scientific Publishing Company, Inhomogeneous Waves And Maxwell's Equations. By Patrick Cornille, Centre Detudes De Limeil Valenton 94195, Villeneuve, St. Georges, Cedey, France.

35. Essays On The Formal Aspects Of Electromagnetic Theory, Lakhtakia, Published by World Scientific Publishing Company. Three Applications Of Information Theory, Adam D. Helfer, Dept. Of Mathematics, University Of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211.

36. Essays On The Formal Aspects Of Electromagnetic Theory, Lakhtaki, Published by World Scientific Publishing Company. Calculation Of The Effective Electromagnetic Properties Of Granular Materials, Southwall Technologies, 1029 Corporation Way, Palo Alto, Ca 94303.

37. Re: One Terminal Capacitor, www.keelynet.com

38. Zero-Point Vibrational Energies Are Highest In C2H1. www.weizmann.ad

39. Physics Abstract 9909043, Berhard Haisch, Alfonso Rueda.

40. HTTP:arx1v.org hip/ phsysics

41. http//www.danwinter.com/mor/ion energy/hon/ele.html

37 - 41 On Bernhard Haisch Zero-Point Energy web page.

42. Essays On Formal Aspects Of Electromagnetic Theory, Lakhtakia, Published by World Scientific Publishing Comapany. A United Approach To Classical And Quantum Electromagnetic Interaction, J.W.G. Wignall, School Of Physics, University Of Melbourne, Parville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

43. Electric Field Propulsion Concepts From Independent Researchers, Charles A. Yost, 1997 NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop, Cleveland, Ohio.

44. The Alzofon Papers: Gravity Control, reviewed by Charles Yost, Electric Spacecraft Journal, issue 13, Published Oct. 12, 1994.