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By Marc Millis of NASA Glenn Research Center, and Eric Davis, of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin (Texas). I'm also using material from Dr. Fabrizio Pinto's speech at the Conference on Free Energy, and the papers of H. David Froning, who has written peer review accepted papers for the American Physical Society, and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. AIAA represents the nation's professional aerospace engineers.
Marc Millis is founder of the Tau Zero Foundation, dedicated to independent research in Star Travel. To quote the book "This book is the first ever compilation of emerging science in areas such as space drives, warp drives, gravity and inertia control, and faster-than-light travel." The book states: "The kind of breakthroughs that would revolutionize spaceflight and enable human voyages to other Star Systems." The concepts the, book is based on, are increasing in numbers in reputable scientific journals. Physical Review Letters, is one example.
The research is currently more in science than in technology. It involves uncovering newly discovered laws of nature. This research and current and future experimentation could lead to the discovery of new force production, and energy exchange Principles. The problems are being defined, and the experimental data is being collected. Some of the experiments have reached dead ends. Other experiments are opening doors for current research, and future development. Star Travel is currently in its embryonic state. By answering currently unknown answers to questions in physics, breakthroughs will occur. This book was published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. The theory and experimentation in Breakthrough Propulsion Physics has met the peer review of the American Physical Society.
The book points out what works, what doesn't work, and what may in the future work with further investigation. The book aims to narrow the focus for independent researchers.
From 1996 to 2002 NASA funded research in the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project. I've tried to get the National Space Society to urge NASA and Congress to re-institute the project with proper funding. Marc Millis has told me that working independent of the government could open up more avenues for creativity, and not be burdened by government regulation. The British Aerospace Systems company also conducted similar research, in Project Greendawn. Current research in this area is continuing throughout the world.
One chapter in the book discusses more conventional methods for star flight at about 10% of the speed of light in a 40 to 50 year time frame. The techniques include laser pushed light sails, and antimatter reactions. Warp Drive theory involves the manipulation of space-time itself, and the engineering of worm holes for travel. There is also the use of zero-point-energy vacuum fluctuations energy, quantum tunneling and the coupling of electromagnetism with gravity and inertia. These concepts tend to go beyond the current understanding of physics involving conservation of momentum. Starting points have been established to bring about deeper future research. The aim is not to violate physics, but to further extend our understanding of physics.
The existence of dark matter and dark energy in the universe show possibilities for interstellar reaction mass, and the manipulation of gravity, and by the equivalence principle, the manipulation of inertia as well.
Alcubierre recommended expanding the space-time metric behind a spacecraft, and compressing it in front of the spacecraft. Use of matter with negative energy density would be required. Positive energy would be used contract, and negative energy would be used to expand. However, our current level of understanding of physics requires astronomical amounts of energy to accomplish this. Further research showed that it could be done with much less energy, but still impractical with today's understanding of science and technology.
In the 1990s Quantum Tunneling experiments detected photons tunneling through a mirror barrier at 1.7 times the speed of light. Other quantum vacuum approaches involve finding the neutrino's rest mass to find evidence of imaginary mass. Also, measuring the speed of light in a closely spaced Casimir cavity, to find evidence of negative energy. Also, the study of cosmic rays to find tachyons. I should mention that the supercollider that was cancelled in the 90s, would have had the capability to create tachyons.
Electromagnetism and gravity are now known to be coupled phenomena, despite their differences in power levels, and internal symmetry, known as gauge relationships. David Froning has experimented with the possibility of conditioning electromagnetic fields to make them the same symmetry as gravity.
One approach to the definition of inertia is to recognize it as a resistance to the zero-point-energy background radiation, during acceleration. Einstein recognized the existence of zero-point-energy in 1913. He once mentioned to a friend that there was enough energy in a cup of tea to vaporize the Earth's oceans. There is spectroscopic evidence for zero-point-energy.
With the direction of the late Dr. Robert Forward, the Air Force Research Laboratory investigated the possibility of creating antigravity. He was also a prolific science fiction writer, who told me that he wanted to make the things he wrote about come true. His theoretical work included breaking light speed with dark energy and dark mass. The book was dedicated to the inspiration provided by Dr. Robert Forward, and Arthur C. Clark.
With the BPP Project, goals included investigation into the possibility of space drive technology. This would involve the use of field propulsion without propellant. Areas of interest include discovery of reaction mass in space. Also, using Mach's Principle to couple to distant masses, via inertial frames. Also, the study of the coupling between gravity, inertia and controllable electromagnetism.
In Woodward's Mach Principle tests the issue of transit inertia is currently unresolved, but may open doors to use of Mach's principle for space transportation. Experiments with EM torsion to couple EM and space-time, suggested asymmetric interactions might prove useful for propulsion.
With FTL quantum conditions, a special case was invented for energy added to the barrier. Casimir Cavity propulsion is being explored; but so far only small propulsive forces have been generated. Dr. Fabrizio Pinto is experimenting with adding energy to Casimir cavities to increase the Casimir force itself, and increase the distance across which it can be transmitted. Besides propellentless propulsion, Dr. Pinto is developing non-abrasive surgery using the expanded Casimir force, and nanotechnology.
Dr. Pinto stated that 1% of the money spent on the Space Station would bring about major breakthroughs in propellentless propulsion research. Breakthrough Propulsion Physics research costs millions of dollars, or less, compared to other space research that costs billions of dollars.
Quantum vacuum effects on inertia are currently being tested at the Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin. With spinning superconductors there was detected a frame dragging force much stronger than that predicted by theory. Just today, I read that the Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin has created negative energy in the laboratory, using high frequency, fast pulsing electromagnetism and rapidly rotating mirrors. Marc Millis is modest in stating that no major breakthroughs have yet occurred, but to me, creation of negative energy looks like a major breakthrough. I haven't been able to get Dr. Hal Puthoff to obtain a Space Exploration Day proclamation for Texas, due to the Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin being very busy with research in this area.
Current experiments have neither rejected nor confirmed the use of mass fluctuations for propulsion. Further research could uncover secrets. The accelerating universe shows evidence of dark energy. One current unknown is the upper cutoff frequency for dark energy. If the Planck frequency is used as the cutoff value, energy density of 120 orders of magnitude higher is calculated. This is the highest frequency for space-time itself, 10 to the 43rd Hz. The Compton frequency for atoms is 10 to the 23rd Hz.
The energy-momentum stress tensor, is a stress imposed upon space-time. Deeper research is required to determine if this can be used as reaction mass. Experiments are underway to explore the possibilities of impulse drives with inertial dampers. Dr. Pinto believes that cancellation of inertia through expansion of the Casimir force is possible. Areas for exploration include determining the connection between ZPE and space-time itself; Also, interpretation of space-time in relation to Mach's Principle. It might be possible to split gravity into electric and magnetic field type components to act as antigravity. It might be possible to create an intense beam of gravitational wave radiation to propel a spacecraft. This would involve ripples in the curvature of space-time itself. The source would eject hard vacuum gravity waves into the background of space-time. This would also involve create a set of gravitational and EM field oscillators.
It is possible for photons to decay to another photon and a graviton. Electrostatics can be used to focus all of these reactions into the same direction. Magneto static fields would also be used to shape the direction of propulsion. This would require high intensity lasers from 10 to the 19th to 10 to the 34th Watts per square meter, at high to ultrahigh frequencies to create the gravitons. The total energy of field scattering would be at 10 to the 9th power J, polarized, creating 2nd harmonic photons to further boost graviton creation for propulsion. Gravitons have been created in linear accelerators, using lasers. This creates a gravitational charge. Gravitons are emitted during acceleration. This would only require a few KW input of energy.
There is also the possibility of creating gravitational waves via resonance, where EM waves couple to its EM field-strength-tensor.
Quantum antigravity propulsion might be possible. This would involve creation of repulsive gravitation. The antigravity would be created through the use of ZPE. Inertia would be coupled via the equivalence principle. The Casimir force created by ZPE would have a negative energy density. Use ZPE and inertial resistance is reduced. A multilayered series of rigid Casimir cavities can be used to magnify the Casimir force. This is similar to a concept I recommended to the BPP for using variable distance rigid Casimir cavities as Casimir force thrusters.
Dipole arrangement of Casimir forces causes acceleration in a gravitational field, according to Dr. Pinto. Electrostatic potential energy becomes equal to the unrenormalized mass of the system. ZPE can be extracted for propulsion. Lasers are used to create gravity-like potential.
Dr. Heim in Austria proposes using hyper dimensional space-time metrics. Partial metric tensors are created to make this possible. This is used to create interaction forces. Repulsive forces are created. The technology would involve a freely rotating ring magnet located above a current loop. Gravito-photons are created. Heim theorizes that inertia could be reduced by a factor of 10,000, to increase spacecraft speed. The spacecraft would go faster-than-light.
Frederick Alzofan recommends use of pure isotopes of Aluminum 27 with spherical iron pellets imbedded in it. This material is put in a static magnetic field. This is excited by microwave radiation, which is pulsed. High pulsing increases a gravitational field, while lower pulsing decreases a gravitational field. A spacecraft could be ejected from Earth's gravitational field and be coupled to the Moon's gravity to take it to the Moon, or coupled to a distant star system. Nuclear entropy is created through dynamic nuclear orientation, which is pulsed and polarized. Paramagnetic electron spin resonance is created, with alignment and disalignment cycles. This modifies interaction between the nucleons and the space-time metric, resulting in reduced inertial mass. This resists Earth's gravitation. Over the years Alzofan has done some successful experiments with this technology, though it is not fully developed at present. I remember an old Flash Gordon serial where Flash Gordon states that nuclear re-orientation is the reason why the cloud city can levitate above the ground.
Experiments with capacitor thrusters provided very small anti-gravitational effects. These would have to be scaled up to be practical for propulsion.
The electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor creation is still under experimental review. Both the problems and positive results from mass-EM field research help define new areas for further research and experimentation. I do know that the mass driver has been built and tested. Casimir effect photon momentum experiments have so far created small thrusts. But the Casimir force wasn't magnified in those experiments, where Pinto has found success in his experiments.
Based on calculations the mass-energy density of ZPE is 10 to the 95th grams per cubic centimeter. This is all perfectly balanced, so that it can't gravitate on itself. But that mass density is much larger than nuclear densities, and should make the universe a black hole. It has been suggested by David Froning that this mass density is stretched across extra dimensions across space-time. The ZPE mass density is 120 orders of magnitude larger than the astronomical measurement of mass density for the cosmological constant. Supersymmetry theory could hold answers to this question.
A moving conductor mirror could cancel out all wavelength orientations of ZPE; but this hasn't yet been experimentally observed. Improvements in detectors are required. Cancellation of inertia could mean crash proof airplanes, and cars.
According to Pinto, a negative electrostatic of potential energy would leave a negative associated mass. There would be a levitation force. This effect can be magnified with the use of highly polarizable hydrogen atoms, which fill the universe in small density. Collection would be greater at greater speeds. This technology would involve an isotropic laser induction. Curved geometrics could be used to increase the Casimir force. Rectangle shapes of Casimir cavities have created a repulsive Casimir force.
I'm only a little over half way through this book. This speech reflects what I have read so far, with some additional information on Pinto, from his speech at the Conference on Future Energy, and papers of David Froning. Also, various sources on the progress of Frederick Alzofan's work. Independent researcher George Hathaway of Toronto, and Electric Spacecraft Journal are two of the sources.
George Hathaway has a chapter on superconductor experiments in the book I just reviewed.include_once("../include/footer.php"); ?>