"GROUND STATE OF HYDROGEN AS A ZERO-POINT-FLUCTUATION-DETERMINED STATE" H.E. PUTHOFF, PHYSICAL REVIEW D, VOLUME 35,NUMBER 10, 15 MAY 1987.

The state of the hydrogen atom can be precisely defined, as resulting from dynamic equilibrium between radiation emitted, due to acceleration of the electron, in its ground state orbit, and radiation absorbed from zero-point-energy. As a result, the Bohr atom doesn't collapse. The zero-point-energy spectrum has a cubic dependence on frequency, on the basis of Lorentz invariance. There are specific energies per normal mode.

Doppler shifts cancel with acceleration, leaving the spectrum Lorentz invariant. Zero-point-energy in space, is homogeneous, isotropic, and Lorentz invariant. Its harmonic oscillating frequency is dependant on it resonance. There is a balance between absorption and transmittance. Mathematical proof was given for atoms. The stability of matter itself, is largely mediated with zero-point-energy phenomena. Could vacuum modification to reduce inertia, and exceed light speed, cause a breakdown of spacecraft matter? It might be possible to reduce density sufficient to bring inertia to zero, without matter breakdown. Radiation reaction between particles, is another explanation to the stability of matter, according to Milonni.

"SOURCE OF VACUUM ELECTROMAGNETIC ZERO-POINT-ENERGY" H.E. PUTHOFF, PHYSICAL REVIEW A, VOL. 40. NUMBER 9, NOVEMBER 1, 1989, PAGE 4857. "REPLY TO 'COMMENT ON SOURCE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ZERO-POINT-ENERGY', PHYSICAL REVIEW A, VOL. 44. NUMBER 5, SEPT. 1, 1991, PAGE 3385"'

One theory on zero-point-energy has a spectrum field distribution, that drives particle motion, and particle motion generates the zero-point-energy spectrum. This is a self-regenerating cosmological feedback cycle. The result is a frequency cubed spectral distribution at the correct order of magnitude.

One over radius squared, is the dependence of radiation, and the 4pi (radius squared), average volume distribution of such radiation in spherical shells, around any given point of a high density radiation field. Absorption, and re-emission of zero-point energy occurs in a dipole oscillator in hydrogen, involving the proton and electron. The mass of the electron over the mass of the proton, squared together, makes the electron mass the dominate source to interact with. Rueda suggested that increasing translational energy absorption, from zero-point-energy, leads to ever-increasing translational energies, as a possible source of cosmic ray energies.

The exchange between field, and particle, becomes a net zero vector, at any frequency. Free charge zero-point-energy, is random, and self re-generative. The average solid angle of individual contributions, taken over expanding space, the radiation flux spectral density has an inverse square law amount associated with it.

"EXTRACTING ENERGY AND HEAT FROM THE VACUUM", DANIEL C. COLE, HAROLD E. PUTHOFF, PHYSICAL REVIEW E, VOL. 48, NUM. 2, AUGUST 1993

Attractive casimir force overcomes repulsive electrostatic force, where a charge is stored at high electrostatic potential energy. Puthoff suggests zero-point-energy extraction, using a charged plasma. Casimir force at T=0, involves the thermodynamics of fluctuating electric dipole harmonic oscillators on conducting parallel plates. This involves the microscopic van der waals force between atomic systems macroscopic casimir force between parallel plates. At T=0, two types of thermodynamics is involved. Quasistated operations are thermodynamically reversible, so no heat occurs at T=0. This is zero degrees Kelvin. However, the heat producing process can also be irreversible, producing heat. Collapsing a series of parallel plates, one after the other, then realigning them to repeat the process, would produce net energy. Two plates can be held apart, and then blocked before colliding. But not all of the work of kinetic energy will be transferred into work. Work comes as electromagnetic kinetic energy. Also, the electrostatic force doesn't depend on temperature. Taking systems out of mechanical equilibrium produces heat.

"SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, MAY 1994, VOL. 270, NUM. 5, HAISCH, RUEDA, AND PUTHOFF STUDY"

Both inertial, and gravitational mass define the true mass of an object. Zero-point-energy is a pressure that opposes acceleration. There is a radiation glow on an object as it accelerates through space. This fact was proven by several researchers in the mid 1970s. Gravitational and inertial mass are equal. Gravity is a by-product of zero-point-energy. The zero-point-energy, in the universe, is balanced such, that it can't gravitate on itself. Matter is a small perturbation in the zero-point-energy field. The proper electromagnetic field, could eliminate the inertia of an object in acceleration.

"SCIENCE, VOL. 263, FEB. 4, 1994, PHYSICS, 'INERTIA: DOES EMPTY SPACE PUT UP A RESISTANCE?"'

There are possible changes in the mass of an electron, when it is exposed to powerful laser beams. Also, the Heisenburg uncertainty principle, limits the accuracy of meaning for both position and momentum, at the same time. In the vacuum, in a short period of time, a particle and an antiparticle can appear and disappear without notice. This affects slight shifts in the spectrum of hydrogen, creates electrical noise in semiconductors, and also creates inertia.

With a speed in a quantum sea of virtual particles, everything is the same in all directions, according to Paul Davies, and William Nurah, in the mid 70s. When accelerating through it, theory predicts a sea of heat radiation. But this is heat to small to measure.

Stochastic electrodynamics (SED), uses zero-point-energy to explain bizarre quantum effects, without the need for a complex quantum theory. Inertia results from a Lorentz force that deflects a charged particle, moving through a magnetic field. Also, charged subatomic particles, in objects, feel the Lorentz force. The larger the object, the more particles it contains, resulting in a stronger resistance of inertia. In the casimir effect, the distortion in the quantum vacuum, produces attractive forces between two plates. An experiment with the Stanford linear accelerator, using high energy electrons, caused an intense electromagnetic field to be experienced, as electrons entered a laser beam. The electrons interacted with the quantum vacuum's own field.

"INERTIA AS A ZERO-POINT-FIELD LORENTZ FORCE", B. HAISCH, ALFONSO RUEDA, H.E. PUTHOFF, PHYSICAL REVIEW A, VOL. 49, NUM. 2, FEB. 1994

Matter is made up of primary charged entities or partons, bound as elementary Planck oscillators. The magnetic component of the Lorentz force arises in any accelerated reference frame, from the interaction of partons with the zero-point-energy. Partons are asymptotically free at the highest frequencies, allowing bare mass to interact with zero-point-energy, at very high frequencies, up to the Planck frequencies. The Lorentz force opposes acceleration of the partons. This is inertia. This is electromagnetic resistance from spectral distortion of zero-point-energy in accelerated frames.

Gravity is a Van Der Waals type of force, induced by zero-point-energy. Matter becomes a collection of electromagnetically interacting polarizable particles, made of charged point-mass subparticles (partons). Ultra high planck oscillators, with long range radiation fields are generated by the partons.

The zero-point-energy force acts against the acceleration force, proportionate to the degree of acceleration. Each particle acts as a harmonic oscillator with a given frequency. It is free to vibrate in a plane perpendicular to the direction of acceleration. With the electron, its compton frequency is at the center of the mass charge that oscillates around the center of mass. Zero-point-energy is a reference, with respect to the equilibrium point of a given particle. Acceleration itself, is hyperbolic motion. Refractive behavior with a high index of refraction, occurs at lower frequencies. The magnetic Lorentz force contributes to the inertia, in the vector of acceleration. The sine and cosine relationships oscillate strongly with the given frequency. Wavelengths below the resonant wavelength of the interacting particle, doesn't affect it, with minimum length being the Planck length. There is an equation for the inertial mass of a parton oscillator.

"SETI, THE VELOCITY- OF- LIGHT LIMITATION, AND THE ALCUBIERRE WARP DRIVE: AN INTEGRATING OVERVIEW", H.E. PUTHOFF, PHYSICS ESSAYS, VOL. 9, NUM. 1, MARCH 1996.

Metric engineering can make possible a warp drive, with no time dilation, and an expanding speed of light. This is possible by distorting the local space-time metric in the region of a spacecraft. Acceleration effects would be zero. The speed of light speed limitations are based on an equation which limits energies for acceleration, to below the speed of light.

The metric engineering approach shows that light speed doesn't have to be a fixed constant. Light at light speed, travels through a vacuum inductance of 4pi X 10 to the minus 7 henries per meter. Also, a capacitance of 8.854 X 10 to the minus 12 farads per meter. This represents magnetic permeability, and dielectric permittivity of the vacuum.

The expanded speed of light would occur within a local frame of a light cone. With propagation between closely spaced conducting boundaries, showing the casimir effect, there is an increase in the speed of light, between the plates. Light speed is context dependant. Covariant Maxwell equations in a kiemannian space, with an arbitrary metric, are identical to the material medium with variables of permeability, and permittivity. This involves gravitationally modified Maxwell equations. Having a Lagrangian for particle motion, under the influence of electromagnetic, and gravitational fields, becomes two additional metric dependant functions. Negative energy density vacuum states are needed to expand light speed. Gravitational fields are spherically symmetric.

"CAN THE VACUUM BE ENGINEERED FOR SPACEFLIGHT APPLICATION? OVERVIEW OF THEORY AND EXPERIMENTS", H.E. PUTHOFF, NASA BREAKTHROUGH PROPULSION PHYSICS WORKSHOP, AUG 12-14, 1997, NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER, CLEVELAND, OHIO.

Zero-point-energy plays a role in the inhibition of spontaneous emission. The space-time metric is related to zero-point-energy, curved space, and distorted geometry, most according to Einstein. Quantum theory was needed for zero-point-energy. In the quantum vacuum of empty space, particles appear and disappear. It is a virtual plasma with fields continuously fluctuating about their zero baseline values. This is zero-point-energy. It remains active at absolute zero temperature.

There is a casimir pinch effect in non-neutral plasmas. This process is reflected in the K.R. Shoulders invention. Sonoluminesance involves bubbles collapsing, in an ultrasonically driven fluid, which results in an intense sub-nanosecond burst of light radiation. In heavy water, heat is generated by this process, that is like micro-fusion. Resonant dielectric spheres, detuned slightly from each other, may lead to the best frequency downshift of the more energetic, high frequency components of zero-point-energy, becoming easier to handle.

Micro-cavity techniques could perturb the ground state stability of atomic hydrogen. A non-radiating ground state may be caused by dynamic equilibrium. Radiation is emitted with an accelerated atomic hydrogen atom in its ground state. The ground state becomes compensated by absorption of zero-point-energy.

It might be possible to generate energy by using micro-cavity quantum electrodynamics. Excited atoms pass through casimir cavities, between the frequency of the atoms excited by their ground state. Spontaneous emission times become lengthened by a factor of ten. Dr. Puthoff's method to release pent up energy between these states, is patent pending.

Zero-point-energy may power up accelerating protons in a cryogenically cooled, collision free, vacuum trap. This could extract energy from zero-point-energy vacuum fluctuations.

According to Sakharov, general relativistic phenomena can be seen in the induced effects brought about by changes in zero-point-energy, due to the presence of matter. The causes for gravity and inertia are different, but the effects are similar. The measure of resistance of a body being accelerated by a distant gravitational field, has the same value, as the gravitational attraction between two bodies. Both are determined by their relationships to vacuum fluctuations. Mach's principle attributes inertia to acceleration relative to the masses of the Universe, caused by the masses. In zero-point-energy model, uniform motion doesn't experience a drag from Lorentz-invariant vacuum fluctuations in perfect balance. But an accelerated body meets a resistance force proportional to the acceleration, relative to the fixed stars. It is a vacuum fluctuation relationship to zero-point-energy with distant matter structure. Gravitational and inertial masses can be altered.

"THE ZERO-POINT FIELD AND THE NASA CHALLENGE TO CREATE THE SPACE DRIVE". BERNHARD HAISCH, ALFONSO RUEDA, AUGUST 1997 NASA BREAKTHROUGH PROPULSION PHYSICS WORKSHOP, NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER, CLEVELAND, OHIO.

There is a hypothesis that the inertia and gravitation of matter, originate in the electromagnetic interactions between zero-point-energy, and the quarks and electrons that make up atoms. The relationship of zero-point-energy and inertia, yields relativistic equations of motion, using Maxwell equations.

An inertialess space drive would act like a controllable gravity field. The gravitation connection has its basis in the works of Russian physicist Andrea Sakhorov. Every electromagnetic field created, is a linear harmonic oscillator. It contains potential, and kinetic energy in relation to a given mode (frequency, direction, and polarization). There comes a small temperature change with uniform acceleration. Newton's law of motion, F=ma, can also be derived from Maxwell's Lorentz electrodynamics, as

9. applied to zero-point-energy. Inertial velocity oscillations, in acceleration, are induced from zero-point-energy. The reaction force is a Lorentz force. Each quark, in an atom has its own independent oscillator.

IN acceleration, an oscillator is forced to move perpendicular to the line of travel. The oscillator has its own resonate frequency. Zero-point-energy interacts with charges in matter. This is similar to radiation pressure. The reaction force in Newton's third law of motion, is due to the atoms electromagnetic interactions, involving orbital electrons. With acceleration, there is a scattering of zero-point-energy radiation. In the pushing agent, there is a net flux, or poynting vector, of zero-point-energy on an object, that is opposite the direction of the accelerating direction of travel. The back reaction, is inertia. Inertia is an electromagnetic drag force. It is asymmetric with a propagating vector, with acceleration.

There is a scattering of electric dipoles of zero-point-energy. Gravitation is a result of zero-point-energy electromagnetism, making inertial mass and gravitational mass equal. Space-time curvature is inferred from the propagation of light. General relativity and quantum mechanics don't agree with each other on this point. The propagation of gravitational waves does not follow space-time relativistic curvature. Gravitational energy loss by the Hulse-Taylor Pulsar, shows evidence for quantum mechanical gravitation waves.

Zero-point-energy causes the first particle to oscillate. Secondary effects from this oscillation affects neighboring particles. The secondary fields act back on the first particle. As a result, there is an attractive force between particles. This only affects the phasing of interactions. This is gravitation. Balanced zero-point-energy can't gravitate on itself.

There is polarization of the Dirac vacuum, when rays pass through the particle-antiparticle Dirac Sea. This acts as a medium with an index of refraction, near massive objects. In acceleration, the flux is scattered by charged particles. The reaction force is proportional to the rate of acceleration, and the proper volume of the object. Accelerated motion is into the flux. Radiation is coming toward it, and it turns back on the accelerating agent.

"INERTIAL MASS VIEWED AS REACTION OF THE VACUUM TO ACCELERATED MOTION",ALFONSO RUEDA, BERHARD HAISCH, AUGUST 1997 NASA BREAKTHROUGH PROPULSION PHYSICS WORKSHOP, NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER, CLEVELAND, OHIO.

A timed rate of change of momentum density or flux will arise out of zero-point-energy. This change is directed against and linearly proportional to the acceleration. Mass is seen to grow with acceleration, from a stationary frame of reference. The poynting vector is hyperbolic in motion, due to acceleration. This involves a frequency dependant coupling coefficient that quantifies the fraction of absorption upon the scattering of each frequency. Lorentz volume is in contraction with acceleration. Force is exerted on the particles from zero-point-energy radiation. There appears to be a net flux of momentum density, in the surrounding zero-point-energy.

"CALCULATIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC ZERO-POINT CONTRIBUTIONS TO MASS PERSPECTIVES", DANIEL C. COLE, 1997 NASA BREAKTHROUGH PROPULSION PHYSICS WORKSHOP, AUG. 12-14, NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER, CLEVELAND, OHIO.

Dr. Puthoff views gravity as a van der waals like mechanism between distant particles, due to correlated jiggling motion causes by zero-point-energy radiation. Stochastic electrodynamics both uses and correlates both Newton and Maxwell equations. As opposite charges approach each other, radiated energy is inversely proportional to the distance between them. Charged particles must follow a fluctuating, oscillating trajectory in space to achieve equilibrium. The fluctuating trajectory affects the trajectory of other particles. Gravity involves fluctuating motion between distant particles.

Zero-point-energy, acting on a particle, causes inertia. The velocity of an oscillating particle within acceleration is considered. e(vE X Bzp), where e is the charge of the oscillating particle, E is the electric current, and B is the magnetic component of the zero-point field, acting on the oscillating particle.

"ADVANCES IN THE PROPOSED ELECTROMAGNETIC ZERO-POINT FIELD THEORY OF INERTIA", B. HAISCH, A. RUEDA, H.E. PUTHOFF, 34TH AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE JOINT PROPULSION CONFERENCE AND EXHIBIT, JULY 13-15, 1998, CLEVELAND, OHIO.

A NASA funded research effort was conducted at Lockheed Martin Technology Center, in Palo Alto, California, and at California State University at Long Beach.

Newton's equations of motion can be derived from Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics, as applied to the zero-point-energy of the quantum vacuum. Inertia is an electromagnetic drag force. It is a place holder for a more general quantum vacuum reaction effect. Inertial acceleration is dependent on the spectral characteristics of zero-point-energy. Interactions between zero-point-energy and matter occur at the volume of quarks, and electrons. Protons and neutrons would also be affected. Relativistic formulations of the theory have been successful. Equivalence of mass also makes gravitation electromagnetic.

A key question is whether zero-point-energy/matter interactions that generate mass, might be involved with one or more resonances. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle allows subatomic particles to flicker in and out of existence in the zero-point-energy. Similar quantum processes apply to electromagnetic fields. The E=M(C squared) relationship between mass and energy, represents kinetic energy that the zero-point-energy fluctuations induced on the quarks and electrons that constitute matter.

All we ever experience as mass, is the presence of a certain amount of energy in the presence of certain forces. Interaction of the zero-point-energy with quarks and electrons, physically underlie all manifestations of mass. It has been proposed that inertia is a casimir-like-dependent drag force. Mass can only be measured by acceleration, and decceleration. Inertia is a force per unit acceleration that arises electrodynamically. The origin of reaction force is electromagnetic. Inertial drag force is proportional to the acceleration. In the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, momentum and position are conjugate pairs. With energy and time added, a mass on a spring, or a mechanical harmonic oscillator, can be worked out. The energy levels are discrete and not continuous. It is possible to increase the amplitude of the oscillation in wave and frequency cycles per second. There is always a minimum energy left.

Electronic and magnetic (E & B) fields are oscillating plane waves, Lorentz force arises from the stochastically average magnetic components of zero-point-energy. The poynting vector for the reaction force is c/4pi, where c is the speed of light. (Ezp X Bzp) leads to a non-zero electromagnetic zero-point-energy momentum flux, as viewed from an accelerating object. Quarks and electrons might scatter this asymmetric radiation, leading to a reaction force. Some more complex mathematics and symbols were given. The zitterbewegang oscillation represents an instantanius velocity. The compton wavelength is its amplitude. Zero-point-energy can induce speed of light fluctuations via its eigenvalue. There is a fraction of zero-point-energy scattered at each frequency.

Proton mass is 938 MV, which is 47 times more massive than the sum of its quarks. The Up quark has 5 MV, the Down quark has 10 MV, Two Up and one Down make up the proton. The neutron is Up, Up, Down, at 940 MV, which is 38 times more massive than the sum of its quarks. Particles might have zero-point-energy resonant frequencies, rather than zero-point-energy cutoff frequencies. A cutoff frequency would have to involve the Planck length. The resonance of a mechanical system bears no simple relationship to the individual resonances of its component parts. The sum of masses of an atom, is greater than the mass of its nucleus. Change in mass becomes a change in the amount of energy involved , in zero-point-

13. energy/quark interactions resulting from changes in resonance. The mass of a particle is determined by its resonant frequency.

Inertia is an electromagnetic phenomena between particle charge and zero-point-energy. However, zero-point-energy in of itself can't be a source of gravitation. It can only interact with the much lower mass energy densities of matter. All matter at the level of quarks and electrons oscillates by the influence of zero-point-energy. Each charge generates its own electromagnetic field. This is the source of gravitation. Variable permeability of the vacuum, in the presence of charged mattter, can bend light.