By J. David Baxter

George Hathaway gave a speech, similar to this one, at the 1994 International Space Development Conference in Toronto, Canada. He is a Consulting electrical engineer, who resides in Toronto, Canada. He studies Breakthrough Propulsion Physics research, as it occurs throughout the world. He believes that we are at a point now, like two decades before atomic energy was created in the laboratory. We are seeing the blips on the screen, like the atomic scientists, a few decades before nuclear energy was developed. He has scientifically re-produced many of the claims in the experiments he studies. The Zinsser System is re-producible in the laboratory. It shows great potential for future propellantless propulsion, to provide ultra-cheap space transportation. Unfortunately, Rudolph Zinsser, himself, last heard, was seriously mentally ill and institutionalized, according to George Hathaway. Researchers in Holland are continuing his research.

From Anti-Gravity To Zero-Point-Energy: A Technical Review Of Advanced Propulsion Concepts, George Hathaway, AIDAA/AIAA/DGLR/JSASS 22nd International Electric Propulsion Conference, Oct. 14-17, 1991, Viareggio, Italy.

Creation of anisotrophy by "sucking" electromagnetic waves, is a concept related to the Zinsser propellantless propulsion device. Woodward and Brown came up with the concept of pulsed high voltage high-k dielectric propulsion. Aspden explored concepts of anti-gravitational properties by use of nuclear oscillation phase-locking. Alzofon explored paramagnetic electron spin resonance, causing an induced gravity decoupling. Dragone explored charge phase-coherent van der waals - like gravitational interaction.

Puthoff suggests directly stimulating a local gravitational field, by its interaction with zero-point-energy. Conservation of momentum has to be dealt with. The system has to act on something, in order to transfer from one location to another, with respect to the fixed stars.

According to Millis, zero-point-energy could become coupled in relation to gravitational fields, expelling space waves or gravitons.

Rotation breaks the symmetry of space, according to Cravens. Energy and linear momentum are true tensors, in there internal structure interrelationship to themselves. Parity and angular momentum are psuedotensors. Angular momentum doesn't have to be conserved, under inversion, and in non-inertial reference frames.

Alan Holt envisions hyperspace currents interconnecting all points in the universe, and in other universes. Ride these currents, and near instantaneous interstellar travel might be possible. This can be done by reducing or amplifying the spacecraft's local gravitational field. Much the same as tuning to the right radio frequencies. Field structure could resonate with similar field structure occurring at distant points in space.

Magnetic and electrical fields can be derived from each other, in Maxwell equations. Cravens adds a mass-density variable to these equations. Both mass and electric flux change with respect to volume change. According to Brown and Woodward, energized momentum should be seen, associated with rapidly changing electric fields. There is a divergence in charge current flow, that could lead to antigravitational effects. The coupling constant that this requires, is currently unknown(1991). It involves time varying accelerated motions of masses. Coupling coefficients of about 5 times 10 to the -11th power statcoulombs per dyne were found that varied with the material used. A rapidly charged 350 gm capacitor, switched at 10 to the 6th power volts per millimeter in 100 milliseconds. Gravitational force changes of a few hundredths of a gram were detected.

Vallee, of France, showed that an assigning of momentum to electromagnetism, showed the velocity of light to be a statistical average, depending on the medium of the properties. Millis suggests that the speed of light is a variable, with respect to gravity.

Mass is equal to electromagnetism, bound up in divergent zones. Gravitational forces are due to differences in the density of vacuum energy and permeability and permittivity. A gravitational field is associated with electromagnetic waves in the direction of poynting vector energy flow. There is an equation for this, that can't be represented with my computer keys. Extract zero-point-energy and the gravity field reduces, and only a small portion of the total present is needed, to do this. Gravity is like long-range van der waals force of radiation, according to Puthoff.

Shoulders has created extremely high charge densities up to 10 to the 12th power electrons, in a micron-size volume. Radial casimir pinch forces bring out or cohere to zero-point-energy, to extract it.

Propulsion is possible with zero-point-energy/gravity interaction. Electric plane waves are required for gravitational acceleration. This can be explained through equivalence in voltage. The energy equivalent of Earth's gravitational field is 40 volts per meter. Dipole oscillation gives measurable Gravitational effects. There is a mathematical presentation I can't show.

It involves dipole separation distance from its own center. It operates in Earth gravity at 186 GHz. According to Hooper, polarizing motional fields, in coils, can produce a field, from the coil, in non-inductive pancake form. Ultra-high frequency direct pulsing, of the motional electric field, will de-polarize atoms from the gravitational pull. This is shown in U.S. Patent 3,610,971. It can be found through the U.S. Patent Offices web site.

Zinsser claims local gravitational anisotropy from his device that produces propellantless propulsion. A radio frequency ramp generator, transmitted via capacitor coupled electrodes, reflect off of a small vessel of water. The water weight becomes balanced. Vertical impulses are generated within the water sample. High frequency pulses are applied to the water. Electric and magnetic field components travel back up the line to the generator. These components cancel incident components, carrying a longitudinal stress wave into the water. There is a mathematical representation, for this process, I can't show. It looks like a Maxwell equation.

The resulting field might interact with the local gravitational field, in and around the water, to produce tiny unidirectional impulses. It resonates, because the induced stresses accumulate, due to the matrix not snapping back to its former state instantaneously. High frequency is required. The pulse widens are at 2.5 nanoseconds, or shorter at 100 MHz or higher. Output heat energy exceeds input heat energy by several orders of magnitude. Impulse trains have lasted several hours, and up to several thousand dynes, or ounces of force, for every watt input. Scaled up, this system could support 100 KG, or 1000 Newtons, using 1 KW of electricity. This process is 1000 times more efficient than the xenon ion thruster. Several hundred kilowatts would be required for advanced MPD thrusters.

The Biefield-Brown effect is unidirectional thrust in the direction of the positive plates of a capacitor charged to DC 50 - 250 KV for 10 KG of gravitation. There are improvements with high-k diaelectrics, AC power, and new geometries.

Use of the Earth's magnetic fields, for propulsion, might be possible, with double cone, and a north-south-north electromagnet with superconducting wire.

Atomic properties can be used to negate gravity, according to Fischbach.

Using a lattice model of zero-point-energy, Aspden derived universal physical constants, for fine structure and the gravitational constant. The gravitational structure was associated with nuclear structure. Gravity and nuclear oscillations must match for gravitation control. Charging is required. Ferromagnetic materials are used, such as samarium.

Dragone used forces between oscillating dipoles. Gravitation, in this view, comes from coherence of charges in motion as dipoles. His decoupling from gravity, is similar to the Zinsser system.

Intense laser light is suggested to study zero-point-energy interactions. Wallace patents 3,626, 605, and 3,626,606, the spin of nuclei in angular momentum, causes the spin of nuclei axes of material being spun, to reset parallel with the rotating axis. This induces a second gravitational force.

Alzofan suggests a spin magnetic resonance process of dynamic nuclear orientation. This can be arranged using spin resonance spectroscopy. Aluminum is used in a magnetic field. High frequency vacuum fluctuation magnetic field is not directly observable. RMS effects are associated with gravitational attraction. A math construct proves the possibility. It involves a particle with a specific magnetic moment. Also a vector potential of a matter radiation field, with a specific momentum in a specific time interval.

A hermitian matrix for a 1/2 integral particle spin. This matrix arises out of zero-point-energy. This is an effective charge of a virtual process. Gravitational attraction reduces, due to spin re-orientation. A pulsed oscillating magnetic field is required. When off, gravity orients the nuclei to disorient them. Aluminum alloy is pulsed at a low 6 Hz frequency, in a DNO configuration. This process should lessen gravitational attraction to Earth. Use of a fixed magnetic field of a few hundred oersteds and a few micro-second pulse widths are required in the system. One J of gravitational energy from Earth's 6 X 10 to the 4th power, can be removed per pulse.

The Vance system, uses highly charged particles, kept at a fixed orientation, in a cycle to produce 1.5 times the power of the best available rocket engine, without shedding mass. Gravity is far more penetrating than electromagnetism. So high a k dielectric could be used to effect local gravitational fields. Use of many high speed micro rotators is a possibility. Also use of millions of tiny dipoles. This process has been achieved using 20 KV switched in 150 pecoseconds, has been achieved.

ZERO-POINT-ENERGY: A Prime Mover? Engineering Requirement For Energy Production And Propulsion From Vacuum Fluctuations, by George Hathaway.

Zero-Point-Energy frequency increments involve spectral energy density. A vacuum fluctuation laser should be possible. A resonant casimir cavity, can be used to enhance vacuum fluctuations. This involves one or more leaking cavities, where amplification would take place. Leaky cavities might act as mode separators or discriminators, or even mode down shifters, with the right geometry.

Zero-Point-Energy should have an upper limit. The physical properties of space are modified by the passing of a wave. This creates it at a microscopic volume; a lassless waveguide cavity divergent zone. These properties act like a circuit, with inductance, capacitance, impedence, and resonant frequency. As A result, Plank's Constant, and the speed of light are not universal constants.