A book by Marc Millis and Eric Davis

Part III

Reviewed by J. David Baxter

This review covers highlights of this book. This is additional information to that given in a speech by J. David Baxter. The book itself shows many pros ands cons, and detailed information, required in the process of obtaining progress in breakthrough propulsion physics.

Li and Torr state that through electric and magnetic fields, in a high temperature superconductor, a secondary gravitational field can be created, allowing creation of an opposing gravitational field in the laboratory.

Podkletkov carried on related research in Finland. Ceramic disks were cooled with liquid helium. They were rotated at variable frequencies between 50 Hz and 1 Mhz. At the sides of the disks were two rotating electromagnets. A non-magnetic, non-conductive object was levitated, and it lost weight. This process is known as gravitational shielding.

It is difficult to reproduce the experiment; but George Hathaway, of Toronto, Canada, has successfully reproduced this gravity shielding experiment. The effect is directly proportional to temperature, after a critical temperature is reached. The effect is more pronounced in clockwise rotation, when observed from above. The experiment is largely dependent on the type of material used. The effect does not decay like a dipole field would.

With asymmetrical capacitor thrusters, current must flow for a force to be generated. The magnitude of this force is independent of polarity, and the use of DC or AC. The direction of this force is also independent of these factors. The magnitude is unaffected by magnetic fields up to 5 X 10 to the -3 Teslas. Changes in the magnitude of this force, is affected by the geometry of the set-up. But the changes are modest. Forces do increase with an increase in voltage. This varies for a 4th power increase, using DC voltage. The force generated is also proportional to the square root of the power delivered to the device. Electrostatic forces add momentum to the system.

Photon momentum is derived from its electromagnetic momentum density, combined with the Maxwell stress tensor. The momentum density, of an electromagnetic field photon, decreases when passing an index of refraction greater than unity. But under special conditions, the opposite can be true. A photon drag experiment was successful.

EMIM Force Thrusters were successful. Current and voltage is applied to both magnet coils and capacitor plates. This generates an electromagnetic stress tensor to provide thrust. In the Feigel hypothesis, there is a possibility that momentum can be transferred from zero-point-energy to matter, which is controlled by electric and magnetic fields.

Dr. James Woodward has achieved an experiment in which gravitational interaction took place between an object and distant matter sources in the Universe, in accordance with Mach's Principle. Re-production of the Woodward experiment has been difficult, with results not yet showing the same magnitude of results found by Woodward.

There is a major discrepancy between zero-point-energy, and the observed cosmological constant by a factor of 120 orders of magnitude. Super-symmetry, and string theory suggest possible solutions to the problem. I personally believe that the cosmological constant only shows ambient conditions where all forces cancel out.

In theory, reducing zero-point-energy density reduces inertial resistance. Acceleration may be achieved through a resonant response to an oscillating mirror in a 1 dimensional cavity, involving a 1 dimensional scalar field. The Planck energy cutoff frequency for matter is 10 to the 18th power of electron volts per cubic centimeter. An electron volt is many orders of magnitude smaller than a Volt. This process could bring about super-symmetry breaking.

Negative energy can be found in nature. There are electromagnetic squeezed zero-point-energy states, squeezed quantum fields, and quantum coherence effects. A high density of negative energy would be required for FTL star travel.

Voltage fluctuations in coils have been induced by zero-point-energy at high frequency. This has been detected in resistive wire circuits. ZPE can do real work, and cause measurable currents. So the useful extraction of energy from ZPE is possible.

ZPE can amplify the energy put into it. Tuning the Casimir effect, or negative energy, to amplify total energy, can be done through the use of nanotechnology, in the sub-microscopic range. Radio frequencies deliver energy to piezoelectric mounts for cavity oscillations, and mirror switching. Electromagnetic microscopic vortexes are also a possible energy production sources, using ZPE. The Quantum Electro-dynamic vacuum is degradable, under the action of gravitation induced squeezing and redshifting. Creation of negative energy is a result of this process.