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PROPULSION REQUIREMENTS FOR A QUANTUM INTERSTELLAR RAMJET, JOURNAL OF THE BRITISH INTERPLANETARY SOCIETY, VOL.33,PAGES 265-270, 1980.
The zero point energy density is 10 to the 95th power in grams per cubic centimeter, according to Wheeler. The density of nuclear matter is 10 to the 14th grams per cubic centimeter. A particle is not the primordial entity of our Universe. It is a weak alteration in a pattern of fluctuating geometry. This is called quantum geometrodynamics. Cosmic space itself, is the primordial entity. A spacecraft would represent a weak alteration in the fluctuating geometry of the space it travels through. Zero-Point Energy is a major component in the Lambert-Rutherford shift in the energy level of the hydrogen atom. Coupling matter with zero-point energy would be required for starflight. He went on to give some mathematical calculations that I can't represent with my computer keyboard.
JULY 1985, (ARTICLE PUBLISHED) MCDONNELL DOUGLAS CORPORATION, 36TH ANNUAL ASTRONAUTICAL CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, SWEDAN, OCT 7-12, 1985, H.D. FRONING "USE OF VACUUM ENERGIES FOR INTERSTELLAR SPACEFLIGHT".
In the Universe, hydrogen atoms average 1 per cubic centimeter. There are 1000 atoms per cubic centimeter in interstellar gas clouds. According to general relativity, empty space contains geometry, and this is the source of all physical structure. This geometry bent one way is gravitation. Excited in another place, it becomes a particle. (Wheeler 1968). The Heisenburg Uncertainty Principle associates the planck length time the speed of light over a given length, with uncertainty in measurement of energy with a spatial region of dimension L. Also, calculates in probability, the expectation value of the vacuum fluctuation, in that spatial region. Welton in 1948, discovered the quantum fluctuation of empty space. Dyson, in 1954, showed a perturbing effect of zero-point energy on the electron motion accounts for a shift in the energy level of the hydrogen atom over it.
This takes place over 10 to the minus 12 cm scale of distance. The planck length is 1.67 times 10 to the negative 33 cm in a given local Lorentz frame, at rest with respect to Earth. Zero-point energy resonates at scale varied topology. (Wheeler, 1968). Fluctuations occur rapidly over very short distances. Changing amplitude can be expressed in unites of energy, mass, or density. This superimposes upon larger space-time structure, with flat Lorentzin space-time -1,1,1,1, with coefficient Planck constant times 6 divided by the cube of the speed of light, all divided by the dimensional length. Length cubed with space curvature.
Quantum fluctuations in geometry and topology of a given dimension, will manifest itself as gravitational wave energy, and electromagnetic wave energy. There is a high probability of structure within the planck length. Radiant energy would manifest itself along a starship's line of flight. Much math was shown, that I couldn't represent with my keyboard. Quanta is emitted at right angles to the line of starflight. Acceleration would be inversely proportional to the starship's length over density.
FIELD PROPULSION FOR FUTURE FLIGHT, H.D. FRONING, JR., AIAA JOINT PROPULSION CONFERENCE, SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA, JUNE 24-26 1991. MCDONNELL DOUGLAS, MDC, 5615A, MAY 1991.
Zero-point energy is observed in the Lambert-Rutherford shift in energy level of a hydrogen atom. It is also manifest in the casimir force. Stoichastic process of kinetic vacuum fluctuations, caused by the quantum charges in the vacuum state of space. Energy density within a given volume of space, associates over that in which the energy occurs. At atomic nuclei distance, zero-point energy density compares to the nuclear mass. Dr. Puthoff suggests that the stability of matter itself, may depend upon underlying zero-point energy of great magnitude. Gravity, according to Sakharov, is an induced effect of the continued interplay between zero-point energy and mass. Winterberg believes the vacuum is a superfluid this that is a consequence of circulatory vortex-like-motion. Quantum dynamics may give rise to quantum forces similar to friction. It has pressure density, and viscosity.
Prijogme shows that non-linear systems, under the right conditions evolve from disorder toward macroscopic order. Some electrical rectifiers and plasmas show this, according to King. Millis says it can be gravitationally coupled. The basic requirement involves emission of electromagnetic radiation, or particles. It could also involve an intense electric charge or magnetic flux. All of this strength and modulation would be coupled to zero-point energy, or its related space-time metric states. Tools, to make this possible, include power, pulse width, and frequency for modulation. Also, possibly polarization, and rotation. Must change vacuum field around the spacecraft, for both propulsion, and braking. We must cause unbalanced zero-point energy pressures for trust. Less radiation pressure in the direction of travel, and more radiation pressure pushing from behind. Field forces would have to deflect particles at high speeds, especially speeds many times the conventional speed of light.
INERTIA REDUCTION-AND POSSIBLE IMPULSION BY CONDITIONING ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS, H. D. FRONING, T.W. BARRET, 33RD AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE JOINT PROPULSION CONFERENCE, JULY 6-9, 1997, SEATTLE, WASHINGTON.
Electromagnetic fields can be specially conditioned to couple with gravity. Propulsion takes place by action and reaction of fields. An electric charge or magnetic flux can interact for propulsion, with electric and magnetic fields existing in space. This would include fields of space caused by the flow of charged particles, and the rotation of celestial bodies. These effects are mild. Zero-point energy could be the key for coupling. Bringing inertial resistance to zero, would amplify the effects of space fields.
Great acceleration with very little force of thrust would be possible. Also decelaration with very little force of thrust. There would be very little stress on the vehicle and its inhabitants. Zero-point energy is isotopic in undisturbed space, and Lorentz invariant. Such is not the case with accelerating bodies. Haisch, Rueda, and Puthoff suggest that the inertia of bodies might be the result of spectral distortion of zero-point energy in inertial frames of accelerating bodies, and of a resisting electromagnetic Lorentz force that arises from the distortion.
4. Each zero-point energy fluctuation has radiation pressure. With the Casimir force, unbalanced radiation pressure is caused by fewer fluctuations between the plates. Scharnhurst calculated that the velocity of light, in an area of reduced zero-point energy fluctuation density, is greater than light speed, in an unconfined vacuum. General relativity has gravitation in a spacetime metric associated with the cosmic distribution of matter. Einstein's correspondence principle equates gravitational mass with inertial mass. A perturbed spacetime metric, would changed both gravity and the inertia of mass. Sakharov and Puthoff suggest that gravity arises from the continual electromagnetic interplay between charged particles of the universe and all the zero-point energy fluctuations associated with them. Perturbations that decrease permittivity and permeability, increase the speed of light, both ahead of, and behind a spacecraft. This process decreases zero-point energy resistance to accelerated flight. Negative energy densities would exist in the perturbed regions. This would be the result of electromagnetism emitted reduced zero-point energy fluctuation density, similar in affect as that between two closely spaced casimir plates.
All matter and radiation can be described in terms of gauge fields. The sources for these fields are conserved quantities. The abelian gauge field is disimmilar in essence from source to generation. Nonabelian fields and sources are identical. Electromagnetism is abelian. The weak and strong forces are nonabelian . Nonabelian fields result in higher internal symmetries. Electromagnetism = U(1). Weak and strong forces are SU(2) and SU(3). Yang states that gravitation is nonabelian. Barrett has shown the possibility of conditioning electromagnetic fields, to make them nonabelian. It should be possible to couple spacetime/gravitational fields into the same vector potential. Zero-point energy is U(1) symmetry. Inertia is interaction between fields of a charged substructure of an accelerating mass. Gravity is nonabelion, but it is a consequence of zero-point energy. ZPE could be given a component of higher symmetry than U(1). It could become manifest with acceleration.
Polarization of the right condition can be radiated from antennas, or from apertures of radio frequencies, or laser transmitters. This would require a rotation through all possible orientations within short time intervals.
5. It should be possible to polarize electromagnetism to a gauge SU(2), that can be coupled with gravity. Gravity itself can be modified within a beam of polarization. This process can change the electrical permittivity and permeability and wave front speed past conventional light speed. The process would involve polarizing electromagnetism rotated 90 degrees, and phase modulated. Another fraction is expanded into the other wave modulation, and mixed with the remaining fraction. Vector potential conditioned electromagnetic fields can also be moved through a toroid with single windings. The process would intensify peaks coming at various resonant frequencies. This could be accomplish in the radio frequency microwave range. The article also gave Maxwell Equations for U(1), and SU(2) symmetries.include_once("../include/footer.php"); ?>