By J. David Baxter

The following paper was submitted, by J. David Baxter to the August 1997 NASA Lewis Research Center's Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop. Since then the name of the NASA facility has been changed to NASA Glenn Research Center. This article appeared in the January 1999 NASA publication, "NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop Proceedings" (NASA/CP-1999 208694).


The research of astronomers and physicists has shown that the speed of light might not be an absolute constant. This could help open up avenues for exceeding light speed. Draining increasing mass energy, and altering the gravitational constant would also be helpful for both propulsion and exceeding light speed. Propellantless propulsion and the application of zero-point-energy could help provide the energy to travel faster-than-light.

Speed of Light Problem

Einstein's theory out rules objects achieving the speed of light. If we consider the speed of light to be a true absolute constant, exceeding light speed would require more energy than that contained in the Universe. Time dilation and mass increase are also associated with approaching the speed of light.

Satellite measurements have confirmed time dilation by comparing communication signals with satellite orbital speeds.

1. Mitchell Pfenning and Larry Ford, of Tufts University, in Massachusetts, calculated that the proposed Alcubierre Warp Drive would require a region smaller than an atom, and be sustained by the energy of 10 Billion universes. Although Alcubierre of Max Planck Institute, in Germany, suggests that the quantum effects of gravity might hold a solution to the problem.

Tachyon Theory

2. General relativity does not out-rule material objects that travel faster than light from birth. These proposed tachyons travel can't slow down to the speed of light. 3. As tachyons lose energy, they speed up. 2. Tachyons tend to pop up in the calculations for unified field theories, especially string theory. Alan Chosdos of Yale University suggests that some neutrinos might actually be tachyons. Aharon Davidson of Ben Gurion University, in Israel, suggests that all elementary particles become tachyons when examined in four spatial dimensions.

4. Relating to faster than light travel, Kinio Fujiwara, of the University of Tokyo, has proposed that high-energy gamma rays could travel faster than light. Divergence in field theories assumes that every line segment in three-dimensional space has a quantum structure similar to an atomic chain of atomic distance.

This relationship becomes nonlinear at sufficiently high momentum. The symmetry is broken. Wave and particle properties of light break and travel at different speeds in relativistic quantum field theories. Energies between 10 to the 11th electron volts and 10 to the 12th Ev is required for the effect as measured from Earth.

One problem with tachyon theory is the causality problem. Two observers might see a tachyon coming from opposite directions. 2. With extra dimensions, causality might not be a problem, according to Davidson. 3. A preferred reference frame in space-time could eliminate causality problems in the calculations; but this would contradict the special theory of relativity. Basically, the problem of causality itself shows that the physics of tachyon theory is probably incomplete. Backward time travel in excess of light speed, is an assumption of general relativity, based on the speed of light being an absolute constant. Perhaps time would speed up again in the future direction after light speed is exceeded. I propose that the speed of light might not be an absolute constant.

The Speed of Light as A Variable

5. Energy and linear momentum are considered true tensors in space-time. But parity and angular momentum are psuedotensors. But if light speed involves broken symmetries, it might not be an absolute constant, but possibly a psuedotensor, permitting faster-than-light travel.

4. Using the rotation of the Earth to change direction in the propagation between two signals, resulted in a one way drift rate between clocks to within 0.001% of the speed of light. The departure from linearity for the spacecraft clocks was 1.5ns 30% of the time, and 1 to 3ns most of the time. The results indicate anisotropic distribution of matter in the Universe in dynamical absolute space.

In other research, it was found that the Crab Nebula emits light at 7Mhz, which is far above the limit of light speed suggested by quantum electrodynamics. There could be variability in the speed of light dependent on frequency, and power source conditions. The phase velocity was not constant for two sources for fast rotating pulsars in a close binary system. The conventional speed of light has been found to be constant in 4.8 parts in 10 to the 17th. But there is possible vector anisotropy in the speed of light, according to Paul Nachman and associates at the University of Colorado.

7,8. According to research conducted by Borge Nodland of the University of Rochester and John P. Ralston of the University of Kansas, radiations in the Universe rotate in a subtle corkscrew pattern, with propagation throughout the Universe. There is greater rotation approaching a parallel direction of travel. Not all space is equal. On the Internet, the researchers stated that their results took into consideration measuring errors. Their research indicated that light travels through space in a polarized pattern, at two slightly different speeds. The effect of this space motion also takes Faraday rotation into account.

10. The speed of light might be slowing down over time. Alan Montgomery of Kanata, Ontario, Canada, showed that over a 250-year period, there has been a light speed decay rate acting at a cosecant-squared curve, with a correlation coefficient better than 99%.

9. As an explanation, Chuck Missler, Personal UP-DATE, Jan. 1993, page 12, states that if electrical permittivity, magnetic permeability, zero-point-energy, or intrinsic impedance change isotopically; then both atomic behavior and the speed of light would vary throughout the Universe. Permeability has been shown to change over time, suggesting the possibility of decreasing light speed.

10. Alan Montgomery and Lambert Dolphin, reported in 1993, in Galilean Electrodynamics, that there actually has been a decrease in the speed of light over 250 years, after measurement errors are considered. Constants involving atomic phenomena and units of time have also changed over time in relation to the speed of light.

Today, atomic clocks and dynamical clocks run out of step with each other, due to changes in the speed of light over time. Comparison with lunar orbital decay has indicated a slowing of atomic clocks. Data was analyzed with weighted regression, time distribution, accuracy, and precision. They confirmed another study by Setterfield and Norman.

I propose that jumping between two light speed change variations, and coming out in the tachyon range can break the light barrier.

Changing the Gravitational Constant

A change in the gravitational constant of a spacecraft could serve both as a propellant source, and a mass reducer, as the spacecraft approaches the speed of light.

11. In Reanalysis of the Eotvos Experiment, Ephraim Fischbach discovered an intermediate range coupling related to baryon number or hypercharge field, connected with various elements. The experiments performed well outside the error bars, but Dr. Fischbach's explanation, regarding the relationship of metal properties to the experiment, was open to debate.

12. This experiment confirmed an experiment done by Dr. Ervin J. Saxell, a post-doctorate student of Einstein's, where he demonstrated variation in the gravitational constant, using a torque pendulum, Faraday Cage, and an electrical charge, baring equal potential environment. He was able to raise and lower the gravitational constant of the materials studied.

4. D.F. Bartlett and associates, at the University of Colorado, suggested that Eotvos experiment sensitivity would increase up to a hundredfold with the use of solid hydrogen for comparison. The experiment measured the relationship of binding energy to nuclear mass. N.C. Ritter, of the University of Virginia, suggested using superconducting spheres in rotation, to detect changes in the gravitational constant. He also suggested that the Eotvos experiment showed that the gravitational force was independent of physical state and chemical structure, down to 10 to the -9 gravitational constant level.

T.C. Van Flandern, of the U.S. Naval Observatory, indicated that lunar occultation, and lunar laser ranging experiments, show that the gravitational constant is decreasing at a rate of (-6.4+-2.2 X 10 to the -11th) per year. It is changing with respect to atomic time. Dr. James E. Faller, of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, informed the author of this paper, that a recent measurement of the gravitational constant, in Germany, was apparently carried out well, and showed a result substantially away from the accepted answer.

Draining Mass Energy Increase with Acceleration

12,14. The Newman Machine may deliver net energy output via electron spins coupled to the Electro-weak interaction conserved under supersymmetry, according to Paul Bruney, of Silver Spring, Maryland. The Newman machine has been scientifically tested, and does hold to conservation laws, considering that there must be an energy source process in the machine.

Use of the Newman effect, in acceleration of a spacecraft, would involve a cycle, which involves a temporary short circuit to the impeller to add power to the power source. This increased power is used to strengthen the impeller's field, which then repeats the cycle at a higher energy level. The process continues until resonance is achieved. The Newman Effect produces from 2 to 7 times the output power from input power.

It would be possible to connect an AC transformer to an AC power source, connected to the primary winding.

The secondary winding load would vary continuously from high resistance to short circuit. As short circuit is approached, the field would increase in the primary winding.

Mark Solis of Shreveport, La, suggests that an atomic particle approaching the speed of light might increase in mass due to kinetic energy imparted to it, by the accelerator. Drain off this imparted energy, as the particle approaches light speed, the mass would decrease, and the particle might exceed light speed.

I propose that this mass increase energy could be used in conjunction with a Newman Effect engine, to accelerate the spacecraft past light speed, while draining the mass energy increase from the spacecraft, if this theory is true. Also, its state in motion would be affected by the charge and spin associated with the magnetic field, possibly helping to alter the gravitational constant around the spacecraft, as it accelerates.

Propulsion Needs

15. There is a problem in using propellant to travel to the stars. Traveling to Alpha Centari in 50 years would require 100,000 supertankers of antimatter.

16. Gravitational fields accelerate masses, and electric fields accelerate charges.

16. If a spacecraft could induce a field around itself and then couple it to the gravity of a distant mass, it could conserve momentum, and accelerate continuously.

It would be like dropping through a constant gravitational well. The gravitational constant would be increased behind the craft and reduced in front of the craft.

5,6,21. Physicist Alan Holt, of NASA Johnson Space Center, suggests generating extremely coherent electromagnetic energy patterns to affect the gravitational constant around a craft, and then setting up a resonance with a distant space-time point, tunneling through the speed of light energy barrier, almost instantaneously to a distant star system.

5. F.E. Alzofon suggested an alignment and disalignment cycle of dynamic nuclear orientation, which would create an electrogravity coupling, to escape the Earth's gravitational field cheaply without propellant.

18. The zero-point-energy of the vacuum of outer space could power the starships of the future. Gravity itself could be a side effect of ZPE according to H.E. Puthoff, as reported in Physical Review Letters. Inertia might also be a drag on the ZPE force. This ZPE could be used to alter a spacecraft's gravitational constant, as well as propel it to light speed and beyond.

17. Throughout space, for every cubic centimeter, there are 10 to the 98th grams of mass energy density. This is more than enough energy to vaporize the Earth's oceans. But it should only be possible to extract this energy at low efficiencies, but still sufficient to power interstellar spacecraft, as well as make solar system spaceflight very cheap. The Casimir effect shows evidence that ZPE exists.

5. R.L. Vallee of France suggests that ZPE could effect the gravitational constant around a spacecraft.

19,20. Perhaps the most impressive evidence for ZPE and electrogravity effects can be shown in the research of John Hutchison, of New West, BC, Canada. George Hathaway of Toronto, Canada told the author of this paper, that he has confirmed these experiments to a limited extent. R.L. Vallee has supported the Hutchison work. The Japanese government, the King of Belgium, and Dr. Hal Puthoff, has also supported this work.

6,19,20. John Hutchison has demonstrated electromagnetic levitation of non-magnetic objects at an increasing rate of acceleration. Objects can fly both up and sideways. The shape of the objects with respect to gravity effects the results of take-off. A shield could be placed behind a spacecraft and the Hutchison effect to accelerate it. This effect might involve electrogravity coupling.

He uses Telsa systems, Van de Graaf generators, and signal generators to achieve results. He launched a 19 lb. Brass bushing that accelerated to 45 MPH by the time it hit the ceiling. He achieved acceleration up to 132.15 M/sec.

The Hutchison Effect can also be used in metal disruption. The effects require from 1000 to 10,000 times the amount of energy applied, suggesting the possibility he has tapped into zero-point-energy.

John has told the author of this paper, that some of his research is classified. In the 80s he worked with Lockheed. But he has also stated that he wishes his research to be used for peaceful purposes.

One problem with the experiments is controllability and replication. It might take days of work to see these effects. But John is confident that these effects can be controlled with increased use of energy, and research. John has used some of his technology to produce controllable energy cells, whose energy levels, he can only explain with Zero -Point-Energy.

5,6. R.G. Zinsser, of Idar-Oberstein, Germany has developed an electrogravity coupled propellantless thruster that is 1000 times more efficient than the Xenon Ion Thruster. Current problems with the technology involve scale-up.


Using speed of light variations, manipulating the gravitational constant, kinetic energy draining of relativistic mass, and by using zero-point-energy, and electrogravity for power and thrust, the means will be found for star travel.


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