BACKGROUND INFORMATION FROM CASIMIR FORCE THRUSTERS NASA GRANT PROPOSAL

By J. David Baxter (Principle Investigator)

Zero-Point-Energy Vacuum Wave Fluctuations

Both electronic and photon emission properties are present in zero-point-energy vacuum fluctuations. There is a coupling of electromagnetism to mass in motion, which is self evident in the blue and red shifts that involve both phenomena. This shifting process becomes unbalanced in accelerating inertial frames, known as poynting vectors. This process is due to interaction between mass and ZPE. Based on these factors, Dr. Hal Puthoff, of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin, in Texas, informed the principle investigator of this proposal that these factors, along with Casimir Force testing, show the best support for the higher energy level predicted for zero-point-energy.

(7) ZPE interacts with the electromagnetism traveling through it, at light speed. At a wavelength of 10 to the -13 cm, the ZPE interval required to support this transmission of energy is one gigavolt. Through the continuous creation and annihilation of photons, via radiation, at 10 to the -8 cm, light propagation itself becomes an average of multiple fluctuation processes. This opens up the possibility of manipulating mass-energy pattern vectors, near an accelerating mass, to break light speed.

(3) ZPE fluctuations maintain corresponding higher energy levels over shrinking microspace intervals. The shorter the interval of volume, the shorter the wavelengths, and higher the frequencies existing at a given level of energy. A given energy level also includes all shorter wavelengths, and their corresponding higher frequencies. A reasonable micro cutoff point would be the Compton atom wavelength, or possibly even the Planck Constant wavelength lower cutoff point, at the subatomic level, where quarks are active. The wavelength oscillations, at a given energy level, are arranged in all possible orientations, frequencies, and wavelengths, in random patterns. When volume expansion becomes sufficient, all of the energies cancel each other out, resulting in potential energy at rest.

(3) ZPE is isotropic, and Lorentz invariant, at rest. This means that all properties are equal, in parallel, expanding in all directions, from a given mass that is at rest, or is in a constant rate of motion. ZPE becomes asymmetric and Lorentz variant, in its vector relationship with matter, when it interacts with an accelerating mass. In Dr. Puthoff's theory, spectral distortion in ZPE results in a resistance to acceleration (or drag) on an accelerating mass, in connection with the electromagnetic Lorentz Force, resulting in the property, we call inertia.

(3) When conducting plates are brought within microns of each other, the shorter wavelengths (with their associated frequencies) between the plates, and the longer frequencies (and their associated frequencies), outside the plates, become unbalanced, in relation to each other. This relationship creates a Casimir Force, which applies a physical mass density like pressure, sufficient in strength, to close the plates.

(6) At 10 to the -4cm, plate distance, between plates, the Casimir Force provides 10 to the -5 newtons of force per square centimeter. This was based on an actual measurement. Using standard Casimir Force calculations, there is .013 dynes of force at 1 micron plate distance. This force increases a thousand-fold at 1 nm distance. It would increase a million-fold at 1 pm distance, except for the problem of atom contours interfering with the flatness of the plates. However, at several order of magnitudes shorter distances, even the atomic surfaces tend to flatten. There is a Casimir force between atoms. If field conditions could create a flat surface, at the picometer range, this would translate into 13 newtons per square centimeter, or a 130,000 newton force over a square meter of area. This would constitute 60, 000 lbs. of constant force. If one hundred plates were arranged parallel to each other, the total force would add up to 6 Million lbs. of constant force.

However, we are talking about an attraction between plates. There is also an electrostatic repulsion, between closely space conducting plates. Both forces could be used to produce a cycle of activity. My proposal was to use plates at varying distances, to unbalance a series of Casimir forces, in the hope of providing a constant thrust, in any given direction.

Dr. Hal Puthoff, of Austin, Texas and George Hathaway, of Toronto, Canada were skeptical of this approach. It would compare to the problem of trying to push a car from the inside. The outside and inside Casimir Forces would tend to balance. If those forces could somehow be transferred into a propulsion thrust, the process would work.

NASA rejected the proposal, only on the grounds of it being too expensive for the funding available to the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project. Unbalanced Casimir Forces are worth studying. My proposal was to use plates in parallel at varying distances from each other to provide 6 Million lbs. of constant thrust. A 300,000 lb. mass could accelerate away from the Earth at the rate of the Earth's gravitational attraction, at the Earth's surface.

More recently I have proposed that FM can be used to modulate ZPE. If zero-point-energy can be modulated, it can also be transmitted, at extremely high frequencies, up into the gamma ray frequency range. This might be a key to using ZPE differences for propulsion, and possibly control over inertia and gravity.

(5) The total calculated energy density in ZPE is 10 to the 108th power joules contained within a volume of one cubic centimeter. The equivalent mass-energy density within this volume is calculated to be 10 to the 94th power of joules per cubic centimeter.

This is many orders of magnitude denser than the mass-energy density of the proton. At one cubic centimeter distance, this energy is at perfect balance, and at rest, producing no net force, except when interacted with. With these conditions, it is impossible for this mass-energy density to gravitate in on itself. Also, gravity itself is a by-product of ZPE, according to the research of Dr. Puthoff. It has been proposed that the higher orders of magnitude ZPE enter into parallel universes, with additional dimensions to the 3 spatial dimensions in our universe. I believe it might be possible for ZPE density to vary between what is in galaxies, and that between galaxies. This might explain the acceleration of the galaxies recently discovered. ZPE does exist.

Any interaction of matter with ZPE only represents a minute fraction of the total interaction with the vast energies present. As such, it will only be possible to extract a minute fraction of the ZPE energies present in nano-scale volumes. A proton in a vacuum can absorb and re-transmit 1000 electron volts of energy from its interaction with ZPE.

(2) (3) (9) According to ZPE interaction quantum theory, a reduction of ZPE within a given mass volume, could be used to increase light speed itself, in relation to accelerating mass. This would also reduce inertial resistance. However, according to Dr. Puthoff, the stability of the electrons surrounding the protons in an atom might be related to their interaction with ZPE. Reduce that interaction, and the electron orbits might become more unstable. Without ZPE, electrons would spiral into the protons. Mass-energy density properties, gravitational effects, and inertia could be modified around an accelerating spacecraft, to use less energy for acceleration, and also break conventional light speed. Dr. K. Scharnhorst proved that it is possible to increase the speed of light with reduced Casimir frequencies between plates. However, the Scharnhorst Effect, itself, only functions at an extremely small fraction of increased light speed. This is about 10 to the -30th increase of light speed. This can be magnified; but it would require many orders of magnitude amplification to bring out a plainly measurable increase.

But travel as a Tachyon might only require such a tiny increase of light speed over an extremely small fraction of a second. The uncertainty factor in quantum physics becomes very considerable at such a small scale of operation, near the Planck length In Tachyon theory, the mass-energy relationship is shed with acceleration. Travel throughout the Galaxy in acceptable time frames would become possible. When the spacecraft slows to near light speed, a ZPE refraction effect, would allow the spacecraft to drop below light speed.

(6) According to theory, inertia and gravitation are both results of coupling between ZPE and the quarks and electrons present in matter. (3) There is also evidence for gravitational waves predicted by quantum theory, and associated with ZPE, in the implied gravitational energy loss, detected in the Hulse-Taylor Pulsar. Also, theories on the Hubble expansion of the universe support the concept of space stretching, resulting in an increase in light speed.

(1) There are weaknesses in traditional relativistic gravitation and inertia theories, that ZPE theory provides answers for. In this area of research, general relativity theory and quantum mechanical theory contradict each other on various points.

For example wave propagation does not strictly follow the rules required for space-time relativistic curvature. But this curvature can only be implied from calculations using light speed. So there are problems making gravitational waves vanish in a properly chosen space-time curvature coordinate system.

Other Suggestions

Accelerating from Earth at a constant acceleration equal to the 9.8M per second per second Earth gravitational acceleration, would require 354 Earth days of travel to approach the speed of light. This number also corresponds to the number of days in an Earth year, that it takes the Moon to make 12 complete rotations around the Earth. Both the rotation of the Moon around the Earth, and the rotation of the Earth around the Sun, involves two masses that are large in proportion to each other, relative to the distances from each other. Making a ratio between the two average distances, for a year, and we have the number of rotations the Earth makes in one revolution around the Sun. The Moon makes one rotation per orbit around the Earth. The Moon is much nearer the Earth, in both distance and comparative mass.

One lunar year is equal to the 354 days corresponding to a constant Earth gravitational acceleration to light speed. The principle investigator wonders if these relationships will be useful in determining pointing vector relationships between ZPE, Inertia, Gravitation, and the Speed of Light.

Future Possible Research Projects

Information relating to the following suggestion is in the August 1998 Discover Magazine, pages 70-79, and in the Proceedings of the August 1997, NASA Lewis Research Center Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop (January 1999). Dr. Raymond Chio, in the Physics Dept. of the University of California-Berkley, has reported observation of a photon tunneling through a barrier at three times the speed of light. I believe faster-than-light tunneling times can be predicted and accurately controlled, without the need for a barrier, by both extending wave properties of a photon past its energy barrier, and using capacitive reactance phase shift correspondence, with related timing constants.

The Hyperspace Research Group, under the direction of Professor Robert Burton, of the BYU Computer Science Dept., has done extensive research into the representation of hyper-dimensional objects. In National Bureau Standards, Special Publication 617 (1984), pages 681-684, Dr. K. Fuilwara, of the Institute of Physics, College of General Education, University of Tokyo, presented evidence that high energy gamma rays might be faster than visible light. In the February 1989 Discover Magazine, pages 56-61, Dr. Aharon Davidson, of Ben-Gurion University, in Israel, suggests the possibility that all subatomic particles become tachyons when observed in four dimensional space.

I recommend focusing high frequency energy onto node points, where 3D structure and its 4D extensions converge. This could provide acceleration past conventional light speed by means of a jump through hyperspace.

References

  1. Baxter J, "A Plan For Exceeding the Light Barrier", ITT Technical Institute Electronics Student. Proceedings of the August 12 14, (1998) NASA Lewis Research Center, Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop. NASA/CP-1999-208694, published January 1999, pages 147-155.
  2. Haisch B, Lockheed Martin, Palo Alto, California. "The Zero-Point Field and the NASA Challenge to Create the Space Drive", Proceedings of the Aug. 12 14, (1998) NASA Lewis Research Center, Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop. NASA/CP-1999-208694, Published January 1999, pages 55-63.
  3. Sobczatt G., Graduate Astronomy Student, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, "The Modified Casimir Force In a Uniformly Accelerating Reference Frame And In A Gravitational Field", Proceedings of the Aug. 12 14 (1998), NASA Lewis Research Center Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop, NASA/CP-1999-208694, published January 1999, pages 328-337.
  4. Puthoff H., Institute For Advanced Studies At Austin (Texas), "Can The Vacuum Be Engineered For Spaceflight Applications? Overview of Theory And Experiments", Proceedings of the Aug. 12-14, (1998), NASA Lewis Research Center Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop, NASA/CP-19990208694, published January 1999, pages 7-12.
  5. Millis M., 1996, "The Challenge To Create The Space Drive", Interstellar Flight Symposium Of the 15th Annual International Space Development Conference, National Space Society, New York, New York, May 23-24.
  6. Froning D, Roach R, 1995, "Drag Reduction, and Possibly Impulsion By Perturbing Fluid And Vacuum Fields", 31st AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, San Diego, California, July 10-12, AIAA 95-2368.
  7. Grob B, 1995, "Grob Basic Electronics", McGraw Hill Books.
  8. Yost C, Rynne T, Dering J, Cravens D., Williams P, Mead F, 1995, Three articles, pages 7-14, 15-24, 25-36, on the topics of "gravity control, electrogravity coupling, electric propulsion/antigravity", Electric Spacecraft Journal, issue 13, published Oct. 12 for release as the Jan.-Mar. issue 1996.
  9. Robert Forward, "Mass Modification Definition Study (An Air Force Report)" Journal Of Scientific Exploration, vol. 10, number 3, autumn 1996